Course Description


    An operating theater, also known as an operating theatre, operating room (OR) or operating suite, is a facility within a hospital where surgical operations are carried out in sterile environment. Historically, the term "operating theatre" referred to a non-sterile, tiered theater or amphitheater in which students and other spectators could watch surgeons perform surgery. A room in hospital which contains an operating table or similar device, generally accommodating one patient at a time,during which, under the direct supervision of a medical or dental practitioner, the patient undergoes an operative procedurefor the prevention, cure, relief or diagnosis of disease, or in pregnancy, childbirth. An operating theatre must: allowpositioning of the patient on the table or device so as to render the operation possible or convenient; have adjustable lightingpowerful enough to permit fine or delicate work under aseptic conditions; provide sterile instruments and facilities for staff tochange clothing; provide deeper pain relief than the basic sedation administered in the ward or local anaesthetic.


    Optometry is a healthcare profession concerned with the eyes and related structures, as well as vision, visual systems, and vision information processing in humans. Optometrists (also known as ophthalmic opticians) are trained to prescribe and fit lenses to improve vision, and in some countries are trained to diagnose and treat various eye diseases. Optometrists function as primary eye care providers who are especially experienced in fitting contact lenses and eyeglass prescriptions while also treating and managing common eye diseases such as glaucoma and dry eye syndrome. Optometrists are also known as optometric physicians (O.D.), held to the same standard as other government regulated health care practitioners participating in Medicare. Ophthalmologists are medical eye physicians and surgeons (M.D. or O.D.) who have completed medical school, ophthalmology residency, and specialty fellowship in certain divisions of ocular surgery (example: cornea, retina, glaucoma, etc.). Opticians are eye care professionals who fit and dispense vision correcting lens prescriptions written by optometrists and ophthalmologists. In 2010 it was estimated that India needs 115,000 optometrists; whereas India has approximately 9000 optometrists (4-year trained) and 40,000 optometrists (2-year trained).

    In order to prevent blindness or visual impairment more well trained optometrists are required in India. It should be noted that definition of optometry differs considerably in different countries of the world. India needs more optometry schools offering four-year degree courses with a syllabus similar to that in force in those countries where practice of optometry is statutorily regulated and well established with an internationally accepted definition. Today's optometrists manage the majority of primary eye care and medical eye care in the India. They conduct routine comprehensive eye exams, prescribe refractive eyeglass and contact lens prescriptions, and manage many common eye diseases and conditions (example: glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, dry eye syndrome, red eye, anterior uveitis, etc.).


    This medical specialization involves using different types of imaging technology, including radiography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to diagnose and treat patients. Radiology can be vital in providing an accurate and early diagnosis which helps to improve treatment prospects and is fundamental to the management of cancer care. Radiologists also play an important role in identifying sources of disease and reducing the risks of further spread.


    Physical therapy education varies greatly from country to country. Worldwide, physical therapy training ranges from basic work site education in hospitals and outpatient clinics to professional doctoral degree and masters programs. In india universities offer Diploma, Bachelor's, Master's and also PhD in Physiotherapy. Bachelor in Physiotherapy (BPT) is a 4-year undergraduate program in physiotherapy with 6 months of mandatory clinical internship; that is typically rotatory. They have almost similar subjects like graduation course in developed countries and can practice either with Physician or independently. However, due to lack of National Council the syllabus of BPT varies from state to state in the country. After the graduation Physiotherapist (PTs') could go for further specialization in Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Physotherapy, Neurology, Musculoskeletal, Hands, Sports, Obs-Gynaecology, or undertake Research. PTs in India use the title 'Doctor' and prefix it before their name with a suffix P.T. (Physiotherapist) so as to make their stand clear they are not medical doctors. However, the use of the title 'Dr' according to the IAP (Indian Association of Physiotherapist ) is by tradition and convention and is used in the same manner as it is used by the MBBS/MS/BDS/MDS/BHMS/BAMS/BNYS/BUMS degree holders. There are well over 250 colleges offering undergraduate program in physiotherapy (BPT) and more than 50 colleges offering masters in Physiotherapy (MPT) with two years' duration.


    This is the part of medical care which makes it possible to numb a patient’s sensations, either in a specific part of the body, or by inducing complete unconsciousness. Specialists in anaesthetics (anaesthetists) are essential members of surgical teams, and are also involved in developing treatments to relieve chronic pain. Further levels of specialization could mean focusing on treating a particular type of case – whether within surgery or pain management. The role combines an in-depth understanding of applied physiology and pharmacology with practical, hands-on skills.

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